Precise Metabolomics Defines Systemic Metabolic Dysregulation Distinct to Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated With Diabetes

Jing-gang Xia, Bowen Li, Hao Zhang, Qin-xue Li, Sin Man Lam, Chun-lin Yin, He Tian and Guanghou Shui

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Viology


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Diabetes is an important risk factor and a common comorbidity in AMI patients. The higher mortality risk of diabetes-AMI relative to nondiabetes-AMI indicates a need for specific treatment to improve clinical outcome. However, the global metabolic dysregulation of AMI complicated with diabetes is still unclear. We aim to systematically interrogate changes in the metabolic microenvironment immediate to AMI episodes in the absence or presence of diabetes.
In this work, quantitative metabolomics was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences between diabetes-AMI (n=59) and nondiabetes-AMI (n=59) patients. A diverse array of perturbed metabolic pathways involving carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism emerged.
In all, our omics-oriented approach defined a metabolic signature of afflicted mitochondrial function aggravated by concurrent diabetes in AMI patients. In particular, our analyses uncovered N-lactoyl-phenylalanine and lysophosphatidylcholines as key functional metabolites that skewed the metabolic picture of diabetes-AMI relative to nondiabetes-AMI. N-lactoyl-phenylalanine was strongly associated with metabolic indicators reflective of mitochondrial overload and negatively correlated with HbA1c specifically in hyperglycemic AMI, suggestive of its central role in glucose utilization and mitochondrial energy production instrumental to the clinical outcome of diabetes-AMI. Reductions in lysophosphatidylcholines, which were negatively correlated with blood glucose and inflammatory markers, might further compromise glucose expenditure and aggravate inflammation leading to poorer prognosis in diabetes-AMI.
As circulating metabolite levels are amenable to therapeutic intervention, such shifts in metabolic signatures provide new clues and potential therapeutic targets specific to the treatment of diabetes-AMI.