Comparative Proteome and Cis-Regulatory Element Analysis Reveals Specific Molecular Pathways Conserved in Dog and Human Brains

Huilin Hong, Zhiguang Zhao, Xiahe Huang, Chao Guo, Hui Zhao, Guo-Dong Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jian-Ping Zhao, Jianhui Shi, Qing-Feng Wu, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yingchun Wang, Lei M Li, Zhuo Du, Yong Q Zhang, Ying Xiong

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
DOI: 10.1016/j.mcpro.2022.100261


Brain development and function is governed by precisely regulated protein expressions in different regions. To date, multiregional brain proteomes have been systematically analyzed only for adult human and mouse brains. To understand the underpinnings of brain development and function, we generated proteomes from six regions of the postnatal brain at three developmental stages of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), which are special among animals in terms of their remarkable human-like social cognitive abilities. Quantitative analysis of the spatiotemporal proteomes identified region-enriched synapse types at different developmental stages and differential myelination progression in different brain regions. Through integrative analysis of inter-regional expression patterns of orthologous proteins and genome-wide cis-regulatory element frequencies, we found that proteins related with myelination and hippocampus were highly correlated between dog and human but not between mouse and human, although mouse is phylogenetically closer to human. Moreover, the global expression patterns of neurodegenerative disease and autism spectrum disorder-associated proteins in dog brain more resemble human brains than in mouse brain. The high similarity of myelination and hippocampus-related pathways in dog and human at both proteomic and genetic levels may contribute to their shared social cognitive abilities. The inter-regional expression patterns of disease-associated proteins in the brain of different species provide important information to guide mechanistic and translational study using appropriate animal models.