Spheroidal Trap Shell Beyond Diffraction Limit Induced by Nonlinear Effects in Femtosecond Laser Trapping

Lu Huang, Yaqiang Qin, Yunfeng Jin, Hao Shi, Honglian Guo, Liantuan Xiao Yuqiang Jiang



Beyond diffraction limit multi-trapping of nanoparticles is important in numerous scientific fields, including biophysics, materials science and quantum optics. Here, we demonstrate the 3-dimenssional (3D) shell-like structure of optical trapping well induced by nonlinear optical effects in the femtosecond Gaussian beam trapping for the first time. Under the joint action of gradient force, scattering force and nonlinear trapping force, the gold nanoparticles can be stably trapped in some special positions, or hop between the trap positions along a route within the 3D shell. The separation between the trap positions can be adjusted by laser power and numerical aperture (NA) of the trapping objective lens. With a high NA lens, we achieved dual traps with less than 100 nm separation without utilizing complicated optical systems or any on-chip nanostructures. These curious findings will greatly extend and deepen our understanding of optical trapping based on nonlinear interaction, and generate novel applications in various fields, such as micro/nano-fabrication, sensing, novel micromanipulations.